Wahi
               Nā Kūpuna

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Questions and manaʻo shared below which are tagged with                              are quotes from our kūpuna.
Kilo are observations made by lawaiʻa and stewards of Miloliʻi, current and prior generations.
 

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Wahi
                Nā Kūpuna

A  

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Hannah Waha Pōhaku Grace Kawaʻauhau-Acia
 
Born 1917, in Kaʻohe.
Raised and worked the koʻa ʻōpelu of Kapalilua. 
 
KM:  Yes, like your kūpuna said too, if you take everything today, tomorrow no more nothing.
HG-A:  My kahu hānai always tell, "ʻAʻale uwē ana ka mea ʻai iā ʻoe, ʻo ʻoe ka mea e uwē ana!"



 

Ka Hana Lawaiʻa A Me Nā Koʻa O Na Kai ʻEwalu Volume II - Oral History Interviews

A History of Fishing Practices and Marine Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands

Kumu Pono Associates

Interviews conducted by Kepā Maly

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“We’ve seen a decline in pākuʻikuʻi, kole, uhu, and other important subsistence species,” says Leivallyn Kaupu, Project Coordinator of Kalanihale, the Miloliʻi-based non-profit proposing the management plan and draft rules to the Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR). Also a lineal descendant of the area, Kaupu says these species are important to the community for cultural, economic, and social reasons. “We’ve depended on them for our food and subsistence for generations.” Kaupu says that despite efforts to manage resources through community action these priority species are still declining.
- Leivallyn Kaupu, Project Coordinator
  Kalanihale

Kilo

 

Kilo

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We don’t see the limu, the life cycles are off. I believe climate and pollution has caused damage.”
- Kalani Forcum  
Lawaiʻa Miloliʻi

 

Wahi
         
Nā Kūpuna

A

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“I grew up here when there was so much fish. I don’t know what happened. When I went to the military, then I went to the city for a little while, came back and everything gone. Most time it's mostly human. You know, they over fish, yuh.”

- Wilfred Kaupiko 
Lawaiʻa Miloliʻi

Kilo

 
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In your proposed rules, you do not support Aquarium Fishing - why not?

It would be irresponsible for us to not acknowledge that herbivores play an important role in our waters.  We need them to perform their function in keeping our reefs healthy.  Aquarium fishing in not a cultural practice, subsistent or sustainable for our kai ecosystem.  This is a community-based subsistence fishing area and by that definition, sets the premise of subsistence.                                                                                                                         - Lawaiʻa Miloli'i

Related References:
 
​   HRS 188-22.6 Designation of community-based subsistence fishing area [ read ]
         Act 32 Miloliʻi Fisheries Management Area [ read ]
         HRS 188-22.7 Miloliʻi Fisheries Management Area [ read ]
       Marine expert says more, larger protected areas needed in Hawaiʻi [ read ]

       Herbivorous Fish Abundance [ read
]
       Saving coral reef fisheries with management areas [ read ]
      BLNR accepts (be default) Revised Final EIS (June 2021) [ read ]
 
 
Whatʻs your position on chop-chop (non-vegetable based chum)?

ʻAʻole chop-chop.  Use of "chop-chop" is not a traditional practice in our home waters.
                                    - Nā ʻOhana Miloliʻi




 

Wahi
                Nā Kūpuna

A  

Walter Keliʻiokekai Paulo a me Kepā Maly

Walter Keliʻiokekai Paulo

Born in 1923 in Nāpoʻopoʻo, fished in the area of Kapalilua.

He worked on DLNR research vessels, investigating fisheries throughout the Pacific.

WP:  More feed for the small fish so you find more planktons, small fish then you’re going to have more big fish.

KM: That’s right the feed fish. Yes, it’s a system all related.

WP:  Yes.

KM:   If you mess up one part everything is messed up right? 

WP:  [chuckles] Or if you kolohe like in ‘ōpelu fishing, they’re using this known as chop-chop, grinding up the ‘ahi or grinding up the aku fish, palu in other words. 

WF:  That’s right. 

MK:  Then people wonder “how come ma‘i?” 

WP:  You kind of foul up the system. Because what it does is it brings in predators and during the olden days, why it was kapu.

KM:  Yes...

Ka Hana Lawaiʻa A Me Nā Koʻa O Na Kai ʻEwalu Volume II - Oral History Interviews

A History of Fishing Practices and Marine Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands

Kumu Pono Associates

Interviews conducted by Kepā Maly


 

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Kahu John "Kumukāhi" Makuakāne a me Kepā Maly

John "Kumukāhi" Makuakāne

Born in 1931 in Puʻukī, Puna.

Violet Akamu Makuakāne and Joni Mae Makuakāne-Jarrell

KM:  …Do people still use ‘ōpae to go out for ‘ōpelu?

JM:  No, that was outlawed in… I think late 1940s or early 1950s. It was outlawed that we can not use that anymore. So that’s the reason I know of why we did not go ‘ōpelu fishing anymore. ‘Cause we no ma‘a [not used to], like the Kona side, they ma‘a already, using the pumpkin, the taro, and the other baits. Here, we have never used that. Not that we cannot, but I guess they just didn’t want to do it. 

KM:  Hmm. Did you hear your mākua or anybody talk about the use of what they call “chop chop” now, or “make dog?” 

JM:  Right, the different names that they use. No. They just didn’t want to fish without that ‘ōpae. That was their way. 

Yes, and it’s sad, when you go throw in the hauna [stink, meat bait], your ko‘a changes too. 

KM:  Right, it does. You bring in all of the different fish that you don’t want. See, the sad thing about that is that a lot of fishermen that I see, that happens, then they bring up the fish and then they throw away. That is terrible. You know they catch all the fish, even the ones they don’t want, on the ‘upena [net].  

JM:  When you put inside the canoe…like our Puna side, with the poi bowl type of net, you don’t have one pile like the Kona style. When you  [pour the fish out of the net], it’s the whole canoe. The net all huli inside, and we get all ‘ōpelu inside. So if they are still alive, and they’re shaking, they take ‘um and throw back what you don’t like. But a lot of them don’t do that. They bring ‘um inside if you do the chop chop. Because with the ‘Apae, you know, guaranteed, only ‘ōpelu. But when you start chop chop, you get all other kinds of fish go inside, that people don’t care for. And then, they bring ‘um in and just throw it all away. And that is bad!  

Probably, the kūpuna knew about chop chop, they understand. But the Hawaiians, they no ‘uha‘uha [waste]. Because food don’t cry for you, you cry for it. 

KM:  ‘Ae [chuckles]. 

JM:  So they never did that kind of stuff. So probably, as far as I know, and I can understand it, once the ‘Apae was outlawed, pau.

VM:  The ‘ōpae have disappeared. Same thing with the ‘ōhua, they came in seasons. You can go out and catch ‘um by the bucket full. We’d go home and dry it, enough for the whole year. Then they made a law that you cannot catch that thing, it disappeared. You hardly see it. 

JM:  And yet, when we were growing, that was part of our food. 

VM:  ‘Ae.

Ka Hana Lawaiʻa A Me Nā Koʻa O Na Kai ʻEwalu Volume II - Oral History Interviews

A History of Fishing Practices and Marine Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands

Kumu Pono Associates

Interviews conducted by Kepā Maly




 

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What are the [open and close] seasons for ʻōpelu and how are these seasons derived?

ʻŌpelu open season is September thru January.  Kapu is placed on ʻōpelu during February through August.  ʻŌpelu kapu (or close) season is a traditional practice allowing the koʻa rest.  

After careful consideration, hook-and-line harvest during the kapu season is allowed as to allow bait harvest for fishers.

Miloliʻi, South Kona is known to be one of the most traditional fishing villages and iconic for itsʻ abundant ʻōpelu.  Second to none, ʻōpelu is the most prized legacy fish species of Miloliʻi


 
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How did you selected the areas to be designated at Puʻuhonua zones?

The 4 Puʻuhonua located at Pāpā, Honomalino, Kapuʻa, and Manukā were selected strategically based upon locations of koʻa, the convergence of (nutrient rich) Kona and Kaʻū currents, and as derived from traditional knowledge and recent observations.  These zones are to sustain healthy environmental conditions to promote replenishable fish stock.

Are these boundaries enforceable? 

If you look at this based on boundaries, and only population alone, this 18.6 is a huge area for one community. A huge area for enforcement alone.










 
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Why did you select the fish species that you have to implement rules for?

10 fish species were identified to be on our "critical" watch list due to itsʻ depletion as a result of considerable consultations with ʻohana and lawaiʻa of Miloliʻi.  This included Input from collaboration of both traditional and modern marine biological studies, and years of kilo.

 
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How will these rules be enforced?  How do statewide and CBSFA regulations overlap?
 
The proposed CBSFA boundaries are not exclusive use for Miloliʻi community.  The boundaries, zone rules, and species rules would apply to Miloliʻi community as well. The community role is to propose the management measures for different portions of that zone.  Itʻs not exclusive use.  

Miloliʻi is the community making place-based recommendations for species rules in the proposed CBSFA.   This is a layered approach that is in addition to state regulations (current and proposed), as such the  herbivore initiative.

All rules and regulations are enforced by DOCARE. Miloli'i is an active Makai Watch community – there is a collaboration with DOCARE where Makai Watch volunteers who are trained on how to accurately identify and report violations.  Makai Watch volunteers also help educate the community about the rules and regulations, however, they are not enforcement.

Enforcement is always a problem. And every single  managed area on the planet, enforcement is the number one problem.  If we put together management  plans, and then put together education and outreach programs, that that's the best enforcement. So I  think it's important to probably decouple enforcement from actual management boundaries, because  they simply cannot go together. And a big I'll just say it again, I think a big part of enforcement is education and outreach. And I do believe that this, this plan, does pay attention to that and the  community does take that very seriously.

We have received a lot of concerns that DOCARE will be unable to enforce the proposed rules.  That should not prevent us from adopting protective measures with the proposed rules, educating and influencing lawaiʻi pono practices.  If we do not, we risk further depletion and negative impacts to our waters and resources, and in turn the health and well being of communities such as Miloliʻi who depend on these resources for their subsistence,  economic livelihood and well-being.
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What are your thoughts on FADs?
 
We would like to see FADs removed from our area.  Although they are 3 miles out and not in the Miloliʻi CBSFA, our observations tell us that they impact fish migration.                                                      - Kaʻimi Kaupiko, Kalanihale

 
I agree.  Iʻve fished the koʻa there in South Kona and I believe they do mess with the koʻa.

References:


     Fish Aggregating Devices [ read ]
           Hawaiʻi FAD Program [ read ]




Do you find that the fish populations move between the boundaries? 

Fish naturally migrate, however, their natural migration can be affected by fish aggregating devices such  as buoys and transducers, or use of “chop-chop” (non-vegetable based feed).





 
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ʻʻ
Why long ʻōpelu spawning season? most fish spawning seasons is usually three months, but spawning  season for you guys is really, really long. 

Closed ʻōpelu season for six months, is not only to protect the spawning, but to allow for  the ability to replenish the stock.  So it's not a long spawning season. The period allows ʻōpelu time to (mature and) reproduce adequately.
 

 

Any thoughts with spawning and seasonality of pākuʻikuʻi and some of the other fish as well, in terms of  in terms of its managing it.  
 

Pākuʻikuʻi is among our “critical” watch species being monitored and surveyed closely.  As with the fish species that we have on our "critical" watch list, we are making recommended species rules.  The species rules reflect the protection that is needed based on our (generations of) observations and monitoring.

 


 

Are there different regulations for pākuʻikuʻi other than aquarium and consumption?

     Yes, Here are the proposed CBSFA Species rules and existing State Rules: 

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Do you find that the fish populations move between the boundaries? 

Fish naturally migrate, however, their natural migration can be affected by fish aggregating devices such  as buoys and transducers, or use of “chop-chop” (non-vegetable based feed).


 

Do you find that the fish maturation periods in these boundaries change as well?  
 

Fish have an automatic time clock that tells them when everything is aligned, size and age can fluctuate according to natural conditions, whether they are inside or outside of our proposed CBSFA boundaries.

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Wahi
         
Nā Kūpuna

A


                                                                                                  Hawaiian Newspaper Translation Project:  Fisheries   
Historical Accounts Translated From Hawaiian to English   
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How did you derive the 100-fathom offshore boundary for Miloli'i CBSFA?

Traditionally, offshore boundary was 1 mile.  In considerable consultation with the ʻohana and fishers of Miloli'i, the following 2 aspects were priority in determining the CBSFA offshore boundary:
 
First, this boundary needed to accommodate the koʻa ʻōpelu – the koʻa ʻōpelu are conservatively within this CBSFA offshore boundary.

Second, with the use of depth finders onboard, fishers can easily remember and recognize their location in proximity to the CBSFA offshore boundary.

                                                                                                                                                     - Miloliʻi CBSFA Hui
 

How does 100 fathom affect Ono fishermen?   
 
None. 


 
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