topic of questions

Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA)
Marine Management Plan - Proposed Zones & Rules

Proposed Zones & Boundaries
Rules & Regulations - Enforcement
Species Rules & Gear Use
 

Wahi
                Nā Kūpuna

A  

ʻʻ
Hannah Waha Pōhaku Grace Kawaʻauhau-Acia
 
Born 1917, in Kaʻohe.
Raised and worked the koʻa ʻōpelu of Kapalilua. 
 
KM:  Yes, like your kūpuna said too, if you take everything today, tomorrow no more nothing.
HG-A:  My kahu hānai always tell, "ʻAʻale uwē ana ka mea ʻai iā ʻoe, ʻo ʻoe ka mea e uwē ana!"



 

Ka Hana Lawaiʻa A Me Nā Koʻa O Na Kai ʻEwalu Volume II - Oral History Interviews

A History of Fishing Practices and Marine Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands

Kumu Pono Associates

Interviews conducted by Kepā Maly

ʻʻ
In your proposed rules, you do not support Aquarium Fishing - why not?

It would be irresponsible for us to not acknowledge that herbivores play an important role in our waters.  We need them to perform their function in keeping our reefs healthy.  Our kūpuna understood this.       – Lawaiʻa Miloliʻi

Related References:
 
​  Marine expert says more, larger protected areas needed in Hawaiʻi [ read ]
       Herbivorous Fish Abundance [ read
]
       Saving coral reef fisheries with management areas [ read ]
      BLNR accepts (be default) Revised Final EIS (June 2021) [ read ]

 
Whatʻs your position on chop-chop?

ʻAʻole chop-chop.  Use of "chop-chop" is not a traditional practice in our home waters.
                                    - Nā ʻOhana Miloliʻi




 

Wahi
                Nā Kūpuna

A  

Walter Keliʻiokekai Paulo a me Kepā Maly

Walter Keliʻiokekai Paulo

Born in 1923 in Nāpoʻopoʻo, fished in the area of Kapalilua.

He worked on DLNR research vessels, investigating fisheries throughout the Pacific.

WP:  More feed for the small fish so you find more planktons, small fish then you’re going to have more big fish.

KM: That’s right the feed fish. Yes, it’s a system all related.

WP:  Yes.

KM:   If you mess up one part everything is messed up right? 

WP:  [chuckles] Or if you kolohe like in ‘ōpelu fishing, they’re using this known as chop-chop, grinding up the ‘ahi or grinding up the aku fish, palu in other words. 

WF:  That’s right. 

MK:  Then people wonder “how come ma‘i?” 

WP:  You kind of foul up the system. Because what it does is it brings in predators and during the olden days, why it was kapu.

KM:  Yes...

Ka Hana Lawaiʻa A Me Nā Koʻa O Na Kai ʻEwalu Volume II - Oral History Interviews

A History of Fishing Practices and Marine Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands

Kumu Pono Associates

Interviews conducted by Kepā Maly
 

ʻʻ

Kahu John "Kumukāhi" Makuakāne a me Kepā Maly

John "Kumukāhi" Makuakāne

Born in 1931 in Puʻukī, Puna.

Violet Akamu Makuakāne and Joni Mae Makuakāne-Jarrell

KM:  …Do people still use ‘ōpae to go out for ‘ōpelu?

JM:  No, that was outlawed in… I think late 1940s or early 1950s. It was outlawed that we can not use that anymore. So that’s the reason I know of why we did not go ‘ōpelu fishing anymore. ‘Cause we no ma‘a [not used to], like the Kona side, they ma‘a already, using the pumpkin, the taro, and the other baits. Here, we have never used that. Not that we cannot, but I guess they just didn’t want to do it. 

KM:  Hmm. Did you hear your mākua or anybody talk about the use of what they call “chop chop” now, or “make dog?” 

JM:  Right, the different names that they use. No. They just didn’t want to fish without that ‘ōpae. That was their way. 

Yes, and it’s sad, when you go throw in the hauna [stink, meat bait], your ko‘a changes too. 

KM:  Right, it does. You bring in all of the different fish that you don’t want. See, the sad thing about that is that a lot of fishermen that I see, that happens, then they bring up the fish and then they throw away. That is terrible. You know they catch all the fish, even the ones they don’t want, on the ‘upena [net].  

JM:  When you put inside the canoe…like our Puna side, with the poi bowl type of net, you don’t have one pile like the Kona style. When you  [pour the fish out of the net], it’s the whole canoe. The net all huli inside, and we get all ‘ōpelu inside. So if they are still alive, and they’re shaking, they take ‘um and throw back what you don’t like. But a lot of them don’t do that. They bring ‘um inside if you do the chop chop. Because with the ‘Apae, you know, guaranteed, only ‘ōpelu. But when you start chop chop, you get all other kinds of fish go inside, that people don’t care for. And then, they bring ‘um in and just throw it all away. And that is bad!  

Probably, the kūpuna knew about chop chop, they understand. But the Hawaiians, they no ‘uha‘uha [waste]. Because food don’t cry for you, you cry for it. 

KM:  ‘Ae [chuckles]. 

JM:  So they never did that kind of stuff. So probably, as far as I know, and I can understand it, once the ‘Apae was outlawed, pau.

VM:  The ‘ōpae have disappeared. Same thing with the ‘ōhua, they came in seasons. You can go out and catch ‘um by the bucket full. We’d go home and dry it, enough for the whole year. Then they made a law that you cannot catch that thing, it disappeared. You hardly see it. 

JM:  And yet, when we were growing, that was part of our food. 

VM:  ‘Ae.

Ka Hana Lawaiʻa A Me Nā Koʻa O Na Kai ʻEwalu Volume II - Oral History Interviews

A History of Fishing Practices and Marine Fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands

Kumu Pono Associates

Interviews conducted by Kepā Maly
 

ʻʻ
ʻʻ
What are your thoughts on FADs?
 
We would like to see FADs removed from our area.  Although they are 3 miles out and not in the Miloliʻi CBSFA our observations tell us that they impact fish migration.
 
I agree.  Iʻve fished the koʻa there in South Kona and I believe they do mess with the koʻa.

References:


     Fish Aggregating Devices [ read ]
           Hawaiʻi FAD Program [ read ]



 
What is a Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area or CBSFA? 

“(a) The department of land and natural resources may designate community based subsistence fishing areas and carry out fishery management strategies for such areas, through administrative rules adopted pursuant to chapter 91, for the purpose of reaffirming and protecting fishing practices customarily and traditionally exercised for purposes of native Hawaiian subsistence, culture, and religion.”   CBSFA Statute - Act 271 - HRS § 188-22.6 (1994)

Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA)
 

ʻʻ
ʻʻ
Who is behind this proposal?

A letter of Inquiry (LOI) was submitted by Kalanihale on behalf of the Miloliʻi Community in Dec 2019 to the Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) to let them know the community is interested in a formal process to develop fisheries management rules, other regulations, and a management plan for the Miloliʻi CBSFA.

 

Founded in 2012, Kalanihale’s mission is to improve the educational, environmental, and cultural well-being of community members of Miloliʻi and South Kona. Our vision is that Miloliʻi is a thriving Hawaiian fishing community with a healthy environment including abundant marine resources and successful families that have a strong sense of place and identity, pride in their Hawaiian culture, and a healthy quality of life socially, economically, and culturally.  Kalanihale represents the collective voice of the people of Miloliʻi who are lineal descendants of the kūpuna who have populated the greater area of Kapalilua for generations, dating back to pre-contact days.

Are these rules to provide exclusive access for the community submitting this Marine Management Plan?

No, the proposed rules will apply to everyone equally. Unlike Marine Life Conservation Districts (MLCDs) and other Fish Replenishment Areas or no-take areas, these draft proposed CBSFA rules do not restrict any type of subsistence fishing. Fishing activities will continue, but they will be guided by traditional and customary fishing management practices.

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With this CBSFA, the proposed zones and rules, will the area be kapu to fishing?

No. With this proposed Marine Management Plan, some type of fishing will be allowed in the entire area. There are proposed bag limits, size limits, seasonal closures, and gear restrictions for certain species and zones.

 
ʻʻ
What information and science informs these proposed rules?

Generations of and current testimony from kūpuna and lawaiʻa Miloliʻi are primary resources for which the Marine Management Plan is based on.  

Since 2016, Miloliʻi community members have been actively monitoring the area via western science methods by conducting nearshore fish, coral and intertidal surveys. Local fishers have also provided observations of this area and described the decline in size, population and catch of pākuʻikuʻi, ʻopihi, and ʻūʻū.  Partnerships with local researchers have and continue to provide their studies in the form of intertidal, water quality, fish and benthic surveys.  These partners are:  Conservation International - Hawaiʻi, University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo - The MEGA Lab, Mōhala Nā Konohiki, Arizona State University, and Marine Education and Resource Center.
ʻʻ
Is this CBSFA a done deal?

No. DLNR encourages any interested person to attend the upcoming public scoping meetings to learn more about the proposal and provide feedback and comments. Your input will be carefully considered and will help to ensure that the area remains abundant in marine resources to support traditional and customary native Hawaiian fishing and gathering practices for current and future generations. After five years, the community will work with DAR to evaluate the status and progress of the CBSFA and management plan and adjust accordingly.
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MARINE MANAGEMENT PLAN - PROPOSED ZONES & RULES

How was the site selected?

The community of Miloliʻi are comprised of lineal descendants of Kapalilua – this extends much farther than the boundaries of the fishing village of Miloliʻi and is reflected in itsʻ intimate knowledge of and within the traditional and customary fishing practices of the 18.6 miles coastline, reflected in moʻolelo recorded of their kūpuna.  
ʻʻ
ʻʻ
The proposal or management plan should have sustainability as a focus and goal. What is sustainable?

Sustaining Abundant Fish Stock 

Traditional and customary konohiki and fishing practices are the minimum behavior of kānaka sourcing resources from these waters to support sustaining replenish-able fish stock.  The proposed zone and rules are to promote those lawaiʻa pono practices.

Sustaining Outreach (for Education & Voluntary Compliance to Rules)

Our approach to sustaining this proposed co-management of the proposed CBSFA, the community has an emphasis on education outreach and a community-watch program.  These are lead by the community and involve training from and partnership with DOCARE.

 

Educational outreach has been ongoing since 2011 and still continues today with the annual Miloliʻi Lawaiʻa ʻOhana Camp. Miloliʻi Makai Watch is an active community-watch program being the “eyes” in the CBSFA, monitoring and alerting state enforcement agency, DOCARE. 

Are these rules to provide exclusive access for the community submitting this Marine Management Plan?

The proposed Miloli CBSFA of 18.6 miles is not for the exclusive use of the Milolii community.  These regulations would apply to the general public, and the public is allowed to fish and harvest resources there. The community's role is to propose the management measures for different portions of that zone. But they will not have exclusive use of the area.

ʻʻ
With this CBSFA, the proposed zones and rules, will the area be kapu to fishing?

No. With this proposed Marine Management Plan, some type of fishing will be allowed in the entire area. There are proposed bag limits, size limits, seasonal closures, and gear restrictions for certain species and zones.

 
ʻʻ
What information and science informs these proposed rules?

Generations of and current testimony from kūpuna and lawaiʻa Miloliʻi are primary resources for which the Marine Management Plan is based on.  

Since 2016, Miloliʻi community members have been actively monitoring the area via western science methods by conducting nearshore fish, coral and intertidal surveys. Local fishers have also provided observations of this area and described the decline in size, population and catch of pākuʻikuʻi, ʻopihi, and ʻūʻū.  Partnerships with local researchers have and continue to provide their studies in the form of intertidal, water quality, fish and benthic surveys.  These partners are:  Conservation International - Hawaiʻi, University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo - The MEGA Lab, Mōhala Nā Konohiki, Arizona State University, and Marine Education and Resource Center.
ʻʻ
Is this CBSFA a done deal?

No. DLNR encourages any interested person to attend the upcoming public scoping meetings to learn more about the proposal and provide feedback and comments. Your input will be carefully considered and will help to ensure that the area remains abundant in marine resources to support traditional and customary native Hawaiian fishing and gathering practices for current and future generations. After five years, the community will work with DAR to evaluate the status and progress of the CBSFA and management plan and adjust accordingly.
ʻʻ